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The leaching of lead and copper from plumbing fixtures and service lines and any other sources in contact with potable water lead-based paint is of special concern. Operational checks of shipboard water plants afloat, inspection, and approval of watering points ashore are only a part of the precautions necessary to assure a safe water supply. Many points of possible contamination exist within the ship and may contribute to waterborne disease outbreaks. Therefore, regardless of the source of the water, there must be vigilant surveillance to assure adequate protection from subsequent contamination.

Potable water is used aboard ship for drinking, cooking, laundry, medical, personal hygiene, and other purposes. Health concerns regarding potable water quality may include physical, chemical, and bacteriological parameters.

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Use of seawater in food services spaces including sculleries is prohibited and seawater outlets in these spaces must be removed. The dangers of cross connections and of using polluted overboard water cannot be overemphasized. Cross connections between the potable water and seawater of other systems are not permitted.

Exception: specific garbage grinders, which use seawater flush and have been approved by BUMED for use in designated sculleries.

Installation of salt water flush garbage grinders precludes storage of clean dishware or other items in the scullery because of concerns for aerosol contamination. Seawater is used aboard ships such as in the fire mains, decontamination, and for marine sanitation devices MSDs flushing. Since conservation of potable water is a constant requirement, it is impractical to provide potable water for all purposes. Potable Water Usage Requirement a. Proper indoctrination of the crew and attention to leaks and waste should limit potable water consumption to reasonable amounts. Water hours may at times become necessary on some ships and this may adversely impact personal hygiene practices.

This is particularly applicable to troop-carrying ships loaded beyond their water-producing capacity. Personnel may keep clean and live under sanitary conditions, even with a limited water supply. If unusual conditions require drastic restrictions in the use of potable water, the allowances should not be less than 2 gallons per man per day to be used for drinking and cooking purposes. In hot environments it is necessary to provide sufficient drinking water quantity to prevent heat casualties.

This encompasses a broad spectrum of potable water uses including drinking water, galley and scullery, personal hygiene, and laundry. Receipt and Transfer of Potable Water a. When receiving or transferring potable water via approved sources, proper procedures must be followed to prevent contamination.

Potable water connections between shore and ships must be made or supervised by authorized shore station personnel. In the event shore personnel are unavailable, properly trained ship personnel will complete this responsibility. The individual making the potable water hose connections shall ensure hoses are not connected to a non-potable system. Engineering will notify the MDR prior to making potable water hose connections. The MDR shall determine if the correct halogen residual is present in the source water and if it is not, he or she must notify the engineering department representative.

Potable water hoses shall not be submerged in harbor water.

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Approved Sources. Potable water may be received from approved shore facilities or other vessels. The following are approved potable water sources: a. Approved U. These sources are subject to termination or modification.

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Bottled water must be obtained from DOD approved sources. Sources of Doubtful Quality. All water supplied by public or private systems not listed in Article should be considered of doubtful quality. When doubt exists as to the quality of water, the MDR, or a responsible of ficer must investigate the source and examine the water as thoroughly as possible with the means available; he or she must then advise the commanding of ficer or master relative to necessary procedures, safeguards, and disinfection.

In instances where the ship must receive water of doubtful quality, disinfection will be accomplished in accordance with Article Potable water hoses shall not be used for any other purpose. They must be properly labeled, stored, and protected from sources of contamination at all times. They must be examined routinely and removed from use when cracks develop in the lining or leaks occur. Disinfection procedures for potable water hoses are found in Articles and Shipboard potable water risers shall be at least 18 inches above the deck and turned down, except when risers are located within the ship, such as in submarines.

Potable water riser must be properly labeled and fitted with a cap and keeper chain. Potable water riser valve or valve handles must be properly color coded in accordance with NSTM Chapter Riser hose connections shall be disinfected prior to connection. Potable water tank sounding tubes will be equipped with screw caps attached to keeper chains.

Screw caps will be secured with a lock. On those ships with sounding rods, the rod should remain in the tube at all times. Potable water sounding tapes must be sanitized prior to each use and shall only be used for potable water tank volume measurements. Connection Procedures. Table provides guidelines for connection procedures covering ship-to-shore and ship-to-ship transfer of potable water. Modification of these procedures may be necessary or required due to ship configuration or operating conditions. Immerse outlet and rinse fitting in solution containing ppm FAC free available chlorine for at least 2 minutes.

Flush water to waste for seconds. Deliver a clean disinfected potable water hose to the outlet just before the connection is made potable water hoses should be provided by the shore facility. Remove hose caps or uncouple hose ends and disinfect if not previously disinfected. Connect hose to pier side outlet and flush. Disinfect shipboard riser connections with ppm FAC solution. Connect hose to the potable water shipboard riser and deliver potable water.

When the transfer is completed, secure the shore water source; remove the ship connection, then the shore connection.

Thoroughly flush the potable water outlet and recap. Drain the potable water hose thoroughly and properly store in the potable water hose storage locker. Both ships disinfect their respective potable water riser connections. The leading potable water hose shall have the hose cap in place during the high-line procedure. When the receiving ship secures the potable water hose, the cap is removed and the hose coupling is disinfected. The supplying ship connects its end and flushes the hose. When the transfer is completed, the receiving ship removes the potable water hose and replaces the caps on the receiving connection and the potable water hose.

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The supplying ship then retrieves, couples or caps, and properly stores the potable water hose. Potable Water Production a. Types of Water Production Plants 1 Distillation plants. Installed on naval vessels are three general types, depending on the source of heat used to evaporate seawater.

They are subdivided into two groups, submerged type and flash type. These subdivisions differ mainly in the pressure in the heating elements and evaporator shell. Single and triple pass RO plants are another type of shipboard water production technology. RO consists of a pre-filtration section that typically includes, in surface ships, a coarse strainer, a 25 Jul centrifugal separator and cartridge filters that remove suspended particles as small as 1 micron in some cases.

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Triple pass RO plants used for submarines do not have a separator but are fitted with cartridge filters nominally rated at 3 micron to remove suspended particles. The RO water treatment technology in lieu of distillation will likely be the technology of choice for fresh water production for new construction ships.

A brief discussion of RO treatment is below. A portion of the filtered water, typically percent, permeates through the membrane to become fresh water.